LA Solar Group

# Solar Cell

## Solar Cell

Why {waste our time digging|do we have to dig|should we spend our time searching} for {oil or shoveling coal|coal or digging for oil|coal or dumping oil} when {there is a huge|there’s a massive|there’s a gigantic} power {station high above|plant high above|station atop} us that {sends out|is sending out|provides} free{, clean| and clean| green} energy? The Sun{, a smoldering| is a glowing| as a burning} {ball of nuclear energy|nucleus|mass of nuclide energy}{,|} {has enough fuel|can provide enough energy|is able to supply the energy needed} to {power|provide power to|supply power to} {our|the|this} Solar System for five billion more years. Solar panels {can convert|are able to convert|can transform} {this energy into an inexhaustible|the energy into an endless|this energy into an unending} {supply of electricity|amount of electricity|power source}.

## What is the maximum amount of solar power we can get from the Sun?

{It is incredible|It’s amazing|It’s incredible} how solar power {works|functions|operates}. {Each square meter on|Every square meter on|Each square meter of} Earth {receives an average|receives on average|gets an average of} 163 watts {solar energy|of solar energy|of solar power}. {We’ll discuss this figure|We’ll go over this figure|This figure will be discussed} in {detail in a moment|greater detail later|more detail in the next paragraph}. {This means that|It means} you could {place|put|install} {a 150 watt table lamp|an electric table lamp of 150 watts|the power of a table lamp that is 150 watts} on every square {meter|meters|inch} of Earth and {use|utilize|make use of} the {Sun’s electrical energy|sun’s energy|solar energy of the Sun} to {light up|illuminate|light} the entire {planet|globe}. Another way {to put|of putting|to think about} it{,| is that| this way,} {if we covered only|If we could cover just|in the event that we only covered} {1%|1percent|one percent} {of the|from the|or less of} Sahara desert {in|with} solar {panels, we could|cells, it would be possible to|panel, then we would} {produce|generate|create} enough {electricity to solar|solar energy to|electricity to} {power the entire world|power the entire planet|provide power to the entire globe}. The {great|best|good} {thing about solar energy|aspect of solar energy|benefit of solar power} is that {there’s a lot|it has a large amount|there’s plenty} of it,{ much| far|} more than {we could|we’ll} ever {need|require}.

{There is a downside|There’s a drawback|There’s a down side}. The Sun’s energy {arrives as|is|comes as} {a mixture|an amalgamation|the result} of {light and heat|heat and light}. Both are {vital|essential}. {The light is what makes|The light helps|Light is what helps} plants grow{ and provides|, and also provides| and provide} {food for us|us with food}. {Heat|The heat|Heating} keeps us {warm enough to live|comfortable enough to live|sufficiently warm to survive}. {However, we cannot|But, we can’t|However, we are not able to} {use the Sun’s|make use of the sun’s|utilize the sun’s} {heat or light|light or heat|energy or light} directly to{ solar|} {power a TV or car|power a car or TV|fuel a car or TV}. It is {necessary|essential|important} to {convert solar energy into another|convert solar energy into a different|transform solar energy into another} {form of energy that|type of energy that|form of energy} {we can use more easily|is more readily available|can be used more efficiently} {such as|like} electricity. {That’s precisely|This is precisely|This is exactly} {what solar cells do|the job solar cells perform|what solar cells do}.

In {Summary|summary|the Summary}:

• The cell’s surface {is illuminated|is lit|gets illuminated} by sunlight
• Photons {carry energy through the|transmit energy through|transport energy through} {cells’|cell’s} layers.
• Photons {transfer their|transmit|transfer} energy to electrons {in|that reside in|located in the} {lower layers|lower layers.}
• {This energy is used|The energy used|This energy is utilized} by electrons to {escape from|get out of|let electrons escape} the circuit{ and jump back| and then jump back|, and return} {into the upper|to the top} layers.
• The {power for|power of|energy for} {a device is provided|devices is supplied|the device is generated} {by the electrons that flow|by electrons that move|through the flow of electrons} {around|through} the circuit.

## What are solar cells?

{A solar cell is an electronic device|Solar cells are electronic devices|The solar cell can be described as an electrical device} {which|that} {captures sunlight and converts|absorbs sunlight and converts|is able to capture sunlight and transform} it into {electricity|electric energy}. {It is about|It’s about|It’s roughly} {the same size as|similar to|equal to} {an adult’s hand|a hand of an adult|the hand of an adult}{, octagonal in form,| and is octagonal in shape| with a shape that is octagonal} and {colored bluish-black|is colored blueish-black|colored in a bluish-black color}. {Many|Numerous|A variety of} solar cells {can be bundled|can be put|are able to be joined} together to {create|form} {larger units called|bigger units, also known as|larger} modules. {These are then connected into|They are then joined to form|These modules are then linked to} {bigger units known by|larger units, referred to as|larger units referred to as} solar panels. (The {black- or blue-tinted|blue or black-tinted|blue or black} tiles {you see on homes|that you see on your homes|you see on houses} {- usually with|typically have|generally have} hundreds of{ individual|} solar cells {per|on top of the} roof) {Or chopped|or chopped|Or cut} into chips (to {power small gadgets|provide power to small devices|charge small devices} {such as digital watches and|like digital watches and|such as digital watches or} {pocket calculators|pockets calculators|small calculators in pockets}).

The cells {of|in} {a solar panel work in|solar panels function in|solar panels work} {the same way as|the same manner as|similar ways to} {a battery|batteries do|batteries}. {However, unlike a|But, unlike|However, in contrast to} battery’s cells{ that produce|, which generate| which produce} electricity {from chemicals|through chemical reactions|using chemicals}{, solar panels’ cells| solar panel’s cells| the cells of solar panels} {capture sunlight to create|absorb sunlight and generate|are able to capture sunlight and produce} electricity. Photovoltaic {cell|cells} (PV){, as they| are able to| is a term used to describe solar cells that} {make electricity from|generate electricity from|produce electricity using} sunlight (photo {comes|is derived|originates} {from the|in the|directly from} Greek word {meaning|that means|for} light). The {term|word} “voltaic”{,|} however, {is a reference|refers} to Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), an Italian {electricity pioneer|electrical engineer who was a pioneer in the field|electric pioneer}.

Light {can be|is|is often} {thought of|considered|described} as tiny particles{ called| known as|, called} photons. {A beam of sunlight is|The sun’s beam is|A sun’s beam can be thought of} {like an enormous|similar to a huge|similar to an enormous} {yellow firehose that shoots|white firehose, which shoots|Yellow firehose which releases} trillions {upon|of} trillions. {A solar cell|Solar cells|A solar panel} can be placed {in|within|on} the {path of these photons|direction of these light beams} to {capture them and then|capture them , and later|collect them and} {convert them into an electric|transform them into electric|transform them into an electrical} current. {Each cell produces|Every cell can produce|Each cell can generate} {a few volts, so|only a few volts, therefore|some volts, and} the {job|purpose|function} of {a solar panel|solar panels|the solar panel} is to combine {energy from|the energy of|the energy produced by} {many cells to produce|multiple cells to create|several cells to generate} {a useful amount of electric|an appropriate amount of electric|the required amount of electrical} {current|electricity|energy} and voltage. {Today’s solar cells are almost|The solar cells of today are nearly|Nowadays, solar cells are almost} {all made of slices|entirely made|all composed of pieces} of silicon (one {the most common|of the most commonly used|the most well-known} chemical elements{ found|| that are found} on Earth{, found within| that is found in| and is found in} sand). {However, as we’ll soon|But, as we’ll|However, as we’ll} {see, other materials may|discover, other materials could|learn, other materials might} {also be possible|be a possibility|also be viable}. The {sun’s energy blasts electrons from|sunlight’s energy blasts electrons out of|sun’s radiation blasts electrons away from} {a solar cell|the solar cell|the solar cells} {when it is exposed to|when it’s exposed to|after it’s exposed} sunlight. {They can then|These electrons can later|Then, they can} be {used to power any electrical|utilized to power any electrical|used to power any electronic} device {that is powered by|powered by|that runs on} electricity.

## How are solar cells made?

Silicon is the {material|substance|main material} {from which microchips’|that microchips’|used to make microchip} transistors (tiny switches){, are made| are constructed| are created}. Solar cells {also work|function|work} {in a similar manner|similarly|in a similar way}. {A semiconductor is|The term semiconductor refers to|It is also} a {type|kind|form} of material. Conductors are {materials that allow|substances that permit|the materials that allow} electricity to flow {easily|freely|smoothly} through them, {such as|like|including} metals.

{Others, like plastics and|Other materials, such as plastics and|Others, like plastics or} wood, {don’t|do not|aren’t able to} {allow|permit} {electricity to flow through them|the flow of electricity through them|electric current to pass through}{;|.} {they are called|they’re referred to as|they’re known as} insulation. Semiconductors{ such as silicon| like silicon|, like silicon,} {are not conductors or|aren’t conductors or|are not conductors , nor} {insulators|insulation}. However{, we can make them| they can| we can make them} {conduct electricity under certain conditions|conduct electricity in certain conditions|conduct electricity under certain conditions}.

{A solar cell is|The solar cells are|Solar cells} {made up|composed|comprised} {of two layers of silicon|from two silicon layers|consisting of two different layers of silicon}{,|} each {one having been|of which has been|one of them being} {doped or treated|treated or doped|modified or doped} {to allow electricity to|so that electricity can|to permit electricity to} {flow|move} {through it|across it,|throughout it} in a {specific|certain|particular} {way|manner}. The lower {layer has slightly|layer contains slightly|one has} {less electrons because it is|less electrons due to it being|lower electrons since it’s} doped. {This layer is called|This layer is referred to as|The layer is known as} {p-type, or positive-type silicon|positively-type silicon, also known as p-type|the p-type or positive-type silicon}. It {has too many|is awash with|is filled with too many} electrons{ and therefore is|, and is therefore|, which is why it is} negatively charged. {To give the layer|In order to give the layer|To provide the layer with} an {excess of electrons,|overabundance of electrons|excess of electrons} it is {doped|charged} {in the opposite direction|to the other direction|with a negative charge}. This is {referred to as|known as|called} {n-type and negative-type|negative-type and n-type|negative-type or n-type} silicon. (Read more about {doping and semiconductors|semiconductors and doping} in our {articles on|posts on|articles about} {integrated circuits and transistors|transistors and integrated circuits}.

A barrier {is formed|forms|is created} {at the junction between|at the intersection of|by the interplay between} two layers of {n-type and|n-type as well as|n type and} {p-type silica|silica of the p-type|silica p-type}. This {barrier is the crucial|is the vital|barrier forms the essential} {border where both types|boundary where the two types|boundary where both kinds} of silicon {meet|come together|come into contact}. {The barrier is inaccessible|The barrier is not accessible|It is unaccessible} to electrons{ so|, so|. Therefore,} even if the{ silicon|} sandwich {is connected to|connects to|has been connected with} a {flashlight|lightbulb|lamp}{, the current won’t flow| it won’t be able to flow current| but the current isn’t flowing} and the {bulb will not|light bulb won’t|lightbulb won’t} {turn|be able to turn|switch} on. {However, if|If|But, if} you shine light {on|onto} the sandwich, {it will produce|it will create|it’ll produce} {something amazing|an amazing effect|some amazing results}. The light {can be|could be|is} {thought of|described|considered} as{ a|| an evaporation} {stream|flow|streaming stream,} {or|as well as|of light or} “light particles”{, which| that| which} are energetic, {called|referred to as|and are referred to as} photons. Photons {that enter|that pass through|entering} the sandwich {give up|release|transfer} their energy to{ the|} silicon atoms {as they pass|they pass|when they move} through. The {incoming energy|energy that is absorbed|energy incoming} {knocks electrons from|knocks electrons out of|is able to knock electrons away from} the lower{, p type layer| layer, which is p type|, p-type layer}. They then {jump across|leap across|cross} {the barrier to reach|barriers to get into|and over the wall to} the {n-type above|n-type layer above|higher n-type} and {flow around|then flow through|move around} the circuit. The {more light there is|more light that is available|greater the amount of light}{, the more electrons will| the greater chance that electrons will| then the more electrons} {jump up and more current|rise and more current|leap up and more electricity} {will flow|flows}.

## How efficient are Solar Panels?

The {law of conservation energy|conservation energy law}{, a fundamental rule| is a basic principle| as a fundamental principle} of physics, {states|says|stipulates} that energy {cannot be created|can’t be made|cannot be produced} or {made to disappear|dissolved|transformed} {into thin|in the|into the} air. {We can only|It is only possible to|We are able to only} {convert it from one form|transform it from one type|change it from one form} of energy {to|into} another. {A solar cell cannot produce|Solar cells cannot generate|A solar cell is unable to produce} more {electricity than it gets|electricity than it receives|energy than it absorbs} {in light each|in light every|from light every} second. {As we will see,|As we’ll see,|We will discover that} {most solar cells can|the majority of solar cells} convert {between 10-20%|10 to 20 percent|between 10 and 20 percent} {of the energy|from the power|of energy that} they {receive|get} {to|into} electricity. The theoretical maximum {efficiency of a typical|efficiency of a|effectiveness of a typical} {single-junction silicon solar panel is|one-junction solar cell is|mono-junction silicon panel would be} {about|around|approximately} 30{%| percent}. This {limit is known|is known|limit is referred to} {as|by} {the|The} Shockley Queisser {limit|limitation|Limit}. {Because sunlight is a wide|Since sunlight has a broad|Because sunlight can be found in a vast} {variety of wavelengths and energies|range of wavelengths and energy|spectrum of wavelengths and energies}{, any single-junction| that a single-junction| one-junction} silicon solar cell {will|can} only {capture photons|be able to capture light|collect photons} {within a narrow|within a limited|in a very narrow} frequency range. {The rest of the|The remainder of the|All other} photons {will be wasted|are wasted|will go to waste}. {Some photons that strike|Certain photons that hit|Some of the photons hitting} {a solar cell|the solar cell|the solar cells} {are too weak to produce|are not strong enough to generate|aren’t strong enough to create} enough electrons. {Others have too much energy|Some have too much energy|Others are too energy-intensive} and {are wasted|end up being wasted|go to waste}. {In the most ideal|Under the ideal|In the best} conditions, {laboratory cells with|lab cells equipped with|lab cells that use} {cutting-edge technology can|modern technology are able to|advanced technology may} {achieve just below 50 percent|attain just under 50 percent|be able to achieve just below 50%} efficiency. They {use|make use of|employ} multiple junctions to {capture photons of|capture photons with|collect photons of} {different|various} {energies|energy levels}.

A {real-world domestic panel might|typical domestic panel could|practical domestic panel may} {have an efficiency of around|be able to achieve an efficiency of about|have an efficiency of approximately} 15 percent. {Single-junction, first-generation solar cells|First-generation solar cells with a single junction|Single-junctionsolar cells of the first generation} {won’t achieve|will not reach|aren’t able to reach} the {30 percent efficiency limit|efficiency of 30 percent|30 percent efficiency threshold} {set by Shockley-Queisser,|that was set by Shockley-Queisser|established by Shockley-Queisser,} or the {laboratory record|lab record|record set by the laboratory} {of|that is|for efficiency of} 47.1 percent. There are {many factors|many variables|a myriad of factors} that {can affect the nominal|affect the|could affect the} {efficiency of solar cells,|efficiency of solar cells|effectiveness of solar cells,} {such as how they are|like how they’re|including how they’re} {constructed, angled and positioned|built, angled and placed|constructed, angled , and placed}{, whether they are ever| and whether or not they’re| in relation to their location, whether they’re} in shadow{, how clean they are| and how clean they are| or not, their cleanliness}{,|} and how cool{ they are| they look|}.

## Different types of Photovoltaic Cell

{The majority of solar cells|Most solar panels|A majority of the solar cells}{ that|} {you will see today|you see|are} on {roofs are simply|rooftops are|rooftops are just} silicon {sandwiches|sandwiched}. {They have|They’ve} {been|had their silicon|received the designation of} “doped” to {improve|increase|enhance} {their electrical conductivity|the electrical efficiency of their cells|its electrical conductivity}. {These classic solar cells|The classic solar cells|These solar cells of the past} are {called first-generation by scientists|referred to as first-generation by researchers|known as first-generation by scientists} to {distinguish them from the|differentiate them from|distinguish them from} two {more advanced|advanced|newer} {technologies, second-|technologies, the second|technology, second-} and {third generation|third-generation}. {What is|What’s} the difference?

## First-generation Solar Cells

{More than 90 percent|Over 90 percent|The majority} of the{ world’s|} solar {cell production is made|cell production comes|cells are made} {from wafers containing|of silicon wafers that contain|of wafers made up of} {crystalline|crystallized|the crystalline} silicon (abbreviated “c-Si”), {which are sliced from large|which are cut from huge|that are then cut out of large} ingots. {This process can take|The process can last|This process could take} {as long as|up to|for as long as} {a month and takes place|one month and is carried out|one month, and it takes place} in {super-clean laboratories|ultra-clean labs|extremely clean laboratories}. Ingots {can|could|may} {be|comprise|include} {single crystals|one crystal|monocrystalline} (monocrystalline solar panels) or multi-crystalline (polycrystalline solar panels){, depending on whether| in the event that| dependent on whether} they {contain|have} multiple crystals.

{First-generation solar cells function|The first-generation solar cell functions|Solar cells of the first generation function} {as|the way} {we have shown them|they are shown|we’ve shown them} in the {box above|above box|picture above}. They {use one, simple|make use of a simple|are based on a single, easy} {junction between n and p-type|connection between p-type and n-type} layers of silicon{, which|. The latter|. It} is {cut from|made from|cut out of} separate ingots. {An n-type ingot is made|Ingots of the n type are made|The n-type ingot is created} by heating {small pieces of silicon with|tiny pieces of silicon using|small silicon pieces using} {small amounts|tiny amounts|very little} (or antimony{ or|, or even| and} phosphorus) as {the dopant|dopants}. {A p-type one would use|In a p-type ingot, you would use|For a p-type, one uses} boron. The junction is {made|created|formed} by {fusing slices of p-type|fusing slices of p type|combining slices of p-type} and {n-type|N-type|the n-type} silicon. There are {a few extra|some additional|additional} bells and whistles {that can|that could|which can} {be added to photovoltaic cells|add to the photovoltaic cell|incorporate into photovoltaic devices} (like an antireflective {layer,|layer|coating,} {which increases light absorption|which improves light absorption|that increases the absorption of light} and {gives them their blue color|makes them blue|creates their blue hue}){, and metal connections| as well as metal connections| and connections made of metal} {so they can|to allow them to|that allow them to} be {wired into|connected to} circuits. {But a simple|However, a basic|A simple} {p-n junction is what most|P-N junction is the most common|p-n junction is the one that most} solar cells {rely|depend|are relying} on. {This is how photovoltaic|This is the way photovoltaic|Photovoltaic} solar cells {have been working|function|have been operating} since 1954{ when|, when} Bell Labs scientists pioneered it{: by shining sunlight onto| by shining light onto| using sunlight to illuminate} silicon sand{ they produced|, they created|, they generated} electricity.

## Second-generation Solar Cells

The {classic|most common|traditional} solar cells {are|consist of|have} thin{ film| films|} {solar cell wafers|silicon wafers for solar cells|of solar wafers}. They’re {usually only|typically only|typically just} {a fraction of millimeter|one millimeter|tiny fractions of millimeters} {thick|thickness|in thickness} (around 200 micrometers{ or 200mm| or 200 millimeters|, or 200 millimeters}). {They aren’t as thin|They’re not as thin|They’re not as thick} {as second-generation|than second generation|like second-generation} solar cells (TPSC){, or| which are| or} {thin film solar cells,|thin-film solar cells,|thin-film solar cells} {which are 100 times thinner|that are 100 times thinner|which are 100 times smaller} (several millimeters{ or millionths of| or millionths|, or millimeters of} {a meter|meters|one meter} deep). {While most of them|Although the majority of them|Though the majority} are {still made of|made from|still composed of} silicon (a {form called amorphous siliu|form known as amorphous siliu|type of silicon known as amorphous silu}{, a-Si| or a-Si| (a-Si)}){, in which| where| that is where} {atoms are arranged|the atoms are placed|particles are distributed} in random {crystalline structures|crystalline forms|crystal structures}{, some are made out| Some are composed| however, some are made} of {other materials such as|other materials , such as|different materials like} {cadmium-telluride, Cd-Te,|Cd-Te, cadmium-telluride|Cd-Te (cadmium-telluride)} {and copper indium gallium diselenide|as well as copper-indium gallium diselenide|or copper indium gallium dielenide}{,|} (CIGS).

{Second-generation cells are extremely|The second generation cells are|Second generation cell are} {thin and light|light and thin} and {can be laminated to|are able to be laminated with} {windows, skylights|skylights, windows} {and|as well as|or} roof tiles. They {also work well|can also be used|are also compatible} with all {types|kinds} of “substrates”{, which| that| which} are {backers such as|the backers, such as|backers like} {metals and plastics|plastics and metals}. Second-generation cells {have less flexibility|are less flexible} than {first-generation ones, but|the first generation ones, however|those of the first generation, but} they {still perform better than|perform far better than|are still superior to} {them|their predecessors|the first generation}. {A top-quality first-generation cell may|The top first-generation cells can|First-generation cells of the highest quality can} {achieve efficiency of 15-20|have an efficiency of 15 to 15|attain efficiency of around 15}{%, but| percent, however| percent, however,} {amorphous silicon struggles to get|Amorphous silicon is struggling to reach|the amorphous silicon cells struggle to achieve} {above|over|higher than} 7{%| percent}) {while the best|and the top|While the most efficient} thin-film CdTe cells {manage only about|can only manage around|achieve just} 11 percent{ and|, and| efficiency, with} CIGS cells {no better than|are no better than|can’t even reach} 7-12{%| percent}. This is {one of|among} the {reasons why|reasons that|main reasons why} {second-generation solar cells have not|second-generation solar cells haven’t|the second-generation solar cells aren’t} {had much success in|been able to make a mark in|enjoyed much success on} the {market despite their many|market , despite their numerous|marketplace despite their numerous} {practical benefits|advantages in practical use|advantages}.

## Third-generation Solar cells

{These new technologies combine|These innovative technologies blend|The latest technologies combine} the best {characteristics of both|features of|qualities of} {first- and 2nd|the first and second|2nd and first} generation cells. They {promise|are expected to have|boast} high efficiency (up {to 30 percent|to 30 %|30 percent or more}) {just like|similar to|as do} {first-generation|the first generation} cells. They {are more likely|tend} to be {made of|constructed from|composed of} {materials other|different materials|substances other} {than|that|as} silicon (making second-generation photovoltaics{,| (also known as|} OPVs){,|} {and|as well as|or} perovskite crystals. {Additionally, they may feature|Furthermore, they could have|They may also have} multiple junctions (made {up of|from|by} {multiple layers from different semiconducting|several layers of different semiconducting|multiple layers made of different semiconductor} {material|materials}). They {would be more affordable|are more affordable|will be less expensive}{, more efficient, and| as well as more efficient and| and more efficient as well as} {practical than first-|feasible than first|practical than the first} or {second generation|second-generation} cells. The{ current|| record-setting} {world record for|global record of|worldwide record in} efficiency {of third-generation|of the third generation|for third-generation} solar {cells is currently 28 percent|cells stands at 28.9|cell is 28.1}. {This was achieved|This record was set|It was reached} in December {2018 by|of 2018 with} {a tandem perovskite-silicon|the perovskite-silicon tandem|an equidistant perovskite} solar cell.

## How are they made?

{As you can see|You can observe|Like you see}{, there are| there are| the} seven steps {to|involved in|in the process of} {making solar cells|creating solar cells|making solar cells}.

### {Stage 1:|1.} Purify Silicon

{The silicon dioxide is|Silicon dioxide gets|It is then} heated {in|by|up in} {an electric furnace|the electric oven|an electrical furnace}. {To release the oxygen|In order to release oxygen|To let oxygen out}{, a carbon arc can| carbon arcs can| carbon arcs, it is possible to} be {applied|used}. {The result is carbon dioxide and molten silica|This results in carbon dioxide as well as molten silica|It results in carbon dioxide, and then molten silicon}{,|} {which can be|which is|that can be} {used to make|utilized to create|used to construct} solar {systems|cells|panels}. {However, even|But, even|Even} {though this yields silicon|the silicon is produced|when this produces silicon} with {only 1% impurity|a 1% impurity,} {it is still not|it’s not quite|it’s still not} {good enough|sufficient|adequate enough}. The floating zone {technique is a method that|technique|method} {allows|permits|lets} the {99% pure silicon rods|100% pure silicon rods|silicon rods that are 99% pure} to {be passed|pass} through a {heated zone several|zone that is heated several|hot zone many} {times in the same direction|time in the exact direction|at a time, in the direction of}. {This process removes all|This method removes any|The process eliminates all} impurities {from one end|at one end|that are present on one side} of the rod{ and allows|, allowing| and permits} it to be {removed|sucked out|cleaned}.

## {Stage 2:|Second Stage:|2.} {Making|The Making of|Constructing} Single Crystal Silicon

{Czochralski Method is the most|The Czochralski method is the most|Czochralski Method has become the} {popular|well-known|sought-after} method {for creating|of creating|to create} single-crystalline silicon. {This|It} involves placing a {seed crystal made|seed crystal composed|crystal of seed made} of silicon {in|inside|within} {melted|the melted|melting} silicon. {This creates a boule|The result is a boule|The result is a ball} or cylindrical ingot{ by rotating| by turning|, by spinning} the seed crystal {while|as|when} it is{ being|} removed from the {melted silicon|silicon melt|silicon melting}.

## {Stage Three|Third Stage}{:|} {Cut|Slice|Make cuts in} the Silicon Wafers

{The second stage boule is used to cut|Second stage boules are used for cutting|A second boule stage is utilized to slice} silicon wafers {with|using|by using} {a circular saw|the circular saw|circular saws}. This {job is best done|task is best accomplished|is the best job to do} {with diamond, which produces|by using diamonds, which produce|with diamonds, which create} {silicon slices that can|the silicon chips that are able to|pieces of silicon that could} {be further|then be|later be} cut {to make|into} {squares or hexagons|hexagons or squares}. {Although the|While the|Although} {saw marks are removed from|cut marks have been removed|cutting marks of the saw are eliminated from}{ the|} {sliced wafers, some manufacturers|slices, some companies|cut wafers, some producers} {leave them because they believe|keep them in place because they believe|leave them on the grounds} that more light {may|could|can} be {absorbed by|absorption by a|captured by the} rougher solar {cell efficiency|cells}.

## {Stage 4:|4. Stage:|Fourth Stage} Doping

After {purifying|cleaning|cleansing} the silicon at {an|a} earlier {stage, it is|point, it’s|stage, it’s} possible to {add impurities back|incorporate impurities|introduce impurities} {into the material|to the silicon}. Doping {is the use of|involves using|involves the use of} {a particle accelerator to ignite|an accelerator that ignites|particles accelerators to ignite} {phosphorus ions in|the phosphorus ions inside|the phosphorus ions within} the ingot. {You can control|You can regulate|It is possible to control} the {penetration depth by|depth of penetration by|depth of penetration through} {controlling the speed of the|altering the speed of|setting the speed of} electrons. {You can skip|It is possible to skip|You can avoid} this step {by using|using|by employing} the {traditional|conventional|standard} {method of inserting boron during|method of inserting boron while|technique of inserting boron into} {cutting the wafers|making the cut|processing the wafers}.

### {Stage Five: Add electrical|Phase Five: Add electric|Step Five: Add the electrical} {contacts|connections}

{The electrical contacts are used|Electrical contacts are used|Electrical contacts are utilized} {to connect the solar system|for connecting the solar panel|as a connection between the solar cells} {and|to} {act as receivers for|serve as receivers for|act as receivers of} the {generated current|current generated|electricity generated}. {These contacts, made|The contacts, which are made|These contacts, composed} {of metals like palladium and|of various metals, including palladium and|from metals such as palladium or} copper{, are thin| are made of a thin layer|, have a thin structure} {to|enough to} {allow sunlight to enter|let sunlight into|allow sunlight to penetrate} the solar cell {efficiently|effectively|in a way that is efficient}. The metal {is either deposited|is either placed|can be deposited} on the {exposed cells or|cells that are exposed or|exposed cells , or} {vacuum evaporated using a photoresist|by using a photoresistor to evaporate the metal|it is evaporated by vacuum using a photoresist}. {Thin strips of copper coated with tin|Tin-coated copper strips|The thin strips of copper lined with Tin} {are usually|are typically|is typically} placed between {the cells after|cells after|the cells following} the contacts {have been installed|have been inserted|are installed}.

### {Stage|Step} Six{: Apply| Step Six: Apply| Application of} the Anti-Reflective Coating

{Because silicon|Since silicon|Because it} {is shiny|shines|has a shiny appearance}, it {can|has the ability to|is able to} {reflect up to|be able to reflect as much as|absorb up to} 35%{ of|} sunlight. To {reduce|minimize|decrease} reflections, a {silicon coating|coating of silicon|layer of silicon} {is applied to it|can be applied|will be put on it}. {This is done by|This is accomplished by|The process involves} heating the {material|substance|surface} until the molecules {boil|begin to boil|are boiling} off. The molecules {then travel onto|then move onto|move on to} the silicon and {condense|begin to condense|expand}. {A high voltage can|The high voltage could|A high voltage may} also be {used to remove|used to eliminate|utilized to detach} the molecules{ and deposit| and then deposit|, and then deposit} them {onto the silicon at|on the silicon at|onto the silicon on} {the opposite|an opposite end of the|another} electrode. This is {called|known as|referred to as} “sputtering”.

### Stage Seven{: Encapsulate and Seal| Stage Seven: Seal and Encapsulate| Step Seven: Encapsulate and Seal} the Cell

{The solar cells are|Solar cells|They are}{ then|} {encapsulated|sealed|enclosed} {with silicon rubber or ethylene|by silicon rubber or ethylene|using silicon rubber or} vinyl Acetate. {Finally, they are placed|Then, they are put|They are then placed} {in an aluminum frame with|inside an aluminum frame, with|in an aluminum frame that has} {a back sheet and|an aluminum back sheet and a|the back sheet as well as a} glass cover.

## What amount of electrical energy can solar cells produce?

Theoretically{, it is|, it’s| speaking, it’s} {a lot|quite a bit|an enormous amount}. {For the moment, let’s|In the meantime, let’s|At the moment, we should} {forget about|put aside|ignore} solar cells and {focus|concentrate|instead focus} on {pure sunlight|the pure sun}. {Each square meter of|Every square meter on|Every square meter of} Earth {can receive up to|could receive as much as|can absorb up to} {1000 watts of solar|1,000 watts in solar|1100 watts of sun} {power|energy}. {This is the theoretical|That’s the estimated|It is the expected} {power|energy|capacity} of direct sunlight {on a clear|on a sunny|during a clear} day. The {solar rays are firing|solar rays are directed|sunlight’s rays are fired} perpendicularly {to the|towards the|to} Earth’s surface{, giving maximum|, resulting in the greatest| and provide the maximum} {illumination|luminosity|light}.

{After we adjust|When we adjust|Once we have adjusted} {for|to} {the tilt of our planet|how our earth tilts|Earth’s tilt} {and|as well as} the {time|seasons|timing}{, we can expect to| we should| we will} {get 100-250 watts per|receive between 100 and 250 watts per|achieve between 100-250 watts for each} {sq|square}. {meter in northern latitudes,|Meter in northern latitudes,|meters in northern latitudes} even on {cloudless days|days with no clouds|clear days}. This {translates to about|is equivalent to|is roughly} 2-6 {kWh per daily|kWh daily|kWh/day}. {Multiplying the entire year’s production|The entire year’s output|When you multiply the whole year’s production, it} {yields 700 to 2500|produces 700- 2500|results in 700-2500} kWh {per|for every} sq. {m|meters} (700-2500 units) of electricity. The {sun’s energy potential|potential of the sun’s energy|solar energy potential} in {hotter regions is clearly|warmer regions is evidently|the hotter regions is definitely} {greater|higher|more} than Europe. For {example|instance}{,|} {the|Middle East|in the} Middle East receives between 50 {and|to} 100 percent {more solar energy|more sun energy|greater solar power} {per|each} {year|calendar year|season} than Europe.

{Unfortunately,|However,|The problem is that} solar cells are {only around|just|only} 15 percent efficient{ so|, so|. This means that} {we can only capture|we only get|you can only harvest} 4-10 {watts per square foot|Watts per square foot|watts per square meter}. {This is why panels with|This is the reason panels that harness|That’s why panels that produce} solar power {must be large|should be huge|have to be massive}{: how big| in size. The amount of area| and the size of the area} {you are able to|the area you can} cover {with cells will directly affect|with cells directly impacts|by cells will affect} the power {you can generate|you generate|that you can produce}. {A typical|The typical|An average} solar panel {made up|comprised|consisting} {of 40 cells|from 40 cell|with 40 solar cells} (each row of {8|eight} cells) {will produce about|produces around|can produce around} 3-4.5 watts. {However, a|But a|A} solar panel {made up|comprised|composed} of 3-4 modules {could generate|can generate|could produce} {several kilowatts, which is|many kilowatts, which would be|several kilowatts. This is} enough to {power a home’s|meet a home’s|supply a house’s} {peak energy needs|most energy-intensive needs|highest energy demands}.

## How about Solar Panel Farms?

{However, what|But, what happens|What} {if we need to generate|do we do if we have to produce|is the best option if we require} {large amounts of solar energy|huge amounts of solar energy|massive amounts of solar power}? {You will need|It will require|You’ll need} between 500 {and|to} 1000 solar roofs {to generate|to produce|in order to generate} {the same amount|similar amounts|approximately the same quantity} of {electricity|power} {as a large|as a|like a large} wind turbine{ with| that has|, with} {a peak output of about|the peak power of around|an output peak of} {two or three|2 or 3|2.5 or 3.0} megawatts. {To compete with large|To compete with|In order to compete with huge} {nuclear or coal power plants|coal or nuclear power plants|coal or nuclear power stations} (rated {in the|in|as} gigawatts){, you would need| it is necessary to have| the requirement is} {about|around|approximately} {1000 solar roofs|1,000 solar roofing systems|1 000 solar rooftops}. This {is equivalent to approximately|would be equivalent to about|is roughly} 2000 wind turbines{ and perhaps|, and possibly| or perhaps} {a million of them|one million|millions of them}. {These comparisons assume that our|This assumes that both|The calculations assume that} solar and wind {produce maximum|generate the highest|power sources produce the maximum} output. {Even though solar cells can|Although solar cells are able to|While solar cells do} {produce clean, efficient power|generate clean, efficient electricity|produce clean, efficient energy}{, they cannot| but they are not able to| however, they can’t} claim to be {efficient|effective} {land uses|use of land|in the use of land}. {Even the huge|The vast|Even the massive} solar farms{ that are|} {popping up all over|appearing all over|being built across} the country {produce modest amounts|generate only a small amount|only produce small amounts} of power, {typically|usually|generally} {around 20 megawatts or 1|around 20 megawatts , or one|about 20 megawatts or 1} {percent less than a|percentage less than the|per cent less than a}{ large|} 2 gigawatt {nuclear or coal|coal or nuclear} plant. [xfield_company], a renewable {company|business|energy company}{, estimates that it takes| estimates that it requires| estimates that it will take} {approximately 22,000 panels to cover|around 22,000 solar panels to cover|approximately 22,000 solar panels for} {a 12-hectare|12 hectares|12 ha} (30-acres) {area|space|surface} to {produce|generate} 4.2 megawatts. {This is roughly|It’s about|This is about} the same{ amount|} {as two large wind turbines|as two wind turbines of a similar size|that two wind turbines with large capacities}. {It also generates|The turbine also produces|Additionally, it generates} enough {power to power 1,200|energy to power 1200} homes.

## Top Residential Solar Companies

[xfield_company], a {full-service solar company|full-service solar firm|fully-service solar business}{, is more convenient| is easier| is easier to use} and {safer|secure|more secure}. We {can handle|are able to handle|can manage} {the installation and maintenance of your solar energy|installing and maintaining your solar|all aspects of the setup and operation of your solar power} system. We {are a full-service,|are a full-serviceand|offer full-service,} {experienced|skilled|expert} {solar energy installer|installation company for solar power|solar installer}. All {inspections and permits|permits and inspections} are {handled|taken care of} by us.

{We have a track record|We have a proven track record|Our track record is one} of {success|accomplishment}. We have{ successfully|} completed {7680+ Watts installations|installations of 7680+ Watts|7680+ watts of installations}{, 46MW+ residential installations| and residential installations of 46MW+| as well as 46MW+ residential installations} and 6.5MW{+ commercial installation|commercial installations|plus commercial installation}{, 94GWh+ production,| and 94GWh+ of production| with 94GWh+ in production} and {\$72M+ savings|savings of \$72M+|a savings of \$72M+}. We {rank fourth nationally|are ranked fourth in the nation|are fourth in the country} {for electric equipment and premium|in electric equipment as well as premium|for electrical equipment and top} solar panels.

Your{ dedicated|| personal} project manager will {answer|be able to answer|address} {all your questions and explain|any questions you may have and will explain|all your questions and provide} any tax {credits or incentives|incentives or tax credits} {you may be eligible for|you might be eligible for|that you could be eligible for}.

{Call|Contact} [xfield_company] right away. Solar energy is{ both|} {renewable and environmentally friendly|green and renewable|eco-friendly and renewable}. There are {numerous|many|a variety of} tax {breaks and benefits available|benefits and tax breaks available|breaks and benefits that are available}.

Solar energy {can reduce|could lower|can lower} {your electricity bills and help|your electric bills and allow|the cost of electricity and also help} you {to be more environmentally|become more environmentally|be more eco} {friendly|green|sustainable}. {You may be able|You could be eligible|It is possible} {to get paid if you|to receive a payment if you|be paid if} have {an agreement|a contract} {with the utility company|in place with your utility provider|between the company that provides electricity} to {provide|supply|deliver} solar {electricity|energy|power} {back to the|returned to|in return to the} grid.

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