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{How much Electricity|How much electricity|What amount of electricity} {do trains use|are trains using|does the train use}?

How {trains work|do trains function|train trains function}

{First, let us|Let’s|In the beginning, let’s} {talk about how trains work|discuss how trains function|look at how trains operate}. Trains are {a major|an important|a significant} mode of {transport, whether|transportation, whether|transport, no matter if} they travel {across small|over small|for short} distances or across {entire|whole} continents. Trains are also {known|referred to} as {railroads or railways|railways or railroads}. They {transport passengers and freight|transport freight and passengers|carry passengers as well as freight}{, such as| like| including} raw {materials or finished goods,|products or materials,|material or finished goods} {within their power cars|in their motor vehicles|inside their powered cars}.

{Before the inventions|Prior to the innovations|In the past, prior to the creations} {of|by|that were the work of} Henry Ford, the Wright brothers{,|} {and|as well as|along with} Gottlieb Daimler, there were {few options for getting|only a few choices for traveling|limited options to travel} {around the country and towns|across the countryside and into towns|through the towns and countryside}. {Paved roads didn’t always run|Roads that were paved didn’t always flow|The roads that were laid out weren’t always} {through|across} the countryside. {Horse-drawn vehicles, even with|The horse-drawn vehicles, despite having|Even with horse-drawn transport, and even} roads, {struggled to transport|had to struggle to transport|were unable to move} {people and goods in adverse|people and goods through adversity|goods and people in severe} {weather|conditions}. In 1550, German pragmatics built wooden railways. They believed that {horse-drawn carts|carts pulled by horses|horses-drawn carts} and wagons {could travel|would travel|could move} {faster and more efficiently over|faster and more efficiently on|more quickly and efficiently over} wooden rails than {on|over|they could on} dirt roads. Iron {wheels and rails|rails and wheels} were {outperformed by wooden ones|outperformed by wooden rails|overpowered by wooden ones} {in the latter part|during the latter half|at the end} {of the 1700s|of the 17th century|of the 1700s}.

The steam {locomotive, invented|locomotive, which was invented|engine, first invented} {in|by the steam locomotive in|during the year 1797 in} England {in 1797, was|around 1797 was|during 1797, marked} the {first|initial|very first} step {towards the modern|toward the modern|towards modernizing the} railroad. The first railroad {that carried|to transport|that transported} {passengers and freight was established|freight and passengers was built|freight and passengers was constructed} {in|within} England {by|through|with the help of} the Stockton & Darlington Railroad Company. Six steam-powered locomotives {transported|carried|could transport} up to 450 {passengers and|passengers as well as|people and} six coal cars {over|across} {a distance of nine|9|nine} miles (11.4 kilometers) in {under|less than|just under} an hour. This feat {was|would have been|is} {impossible for horses|not possible for horseback|unattainable for horses}.

The B&O Railroad Company, located across the {ocean|Atlantic Ocean}{, was established| was founded| was established} {as the|in 1827 as the very|to be the} {first|initial|original} U.S. railroad company in 1827. U.S. railroad workers had laid {more than|over} {30,000|300.000|thirty thousand} miles (48.280 kilometers) of track {by 1860|in 1860|by the year 1860}. This was {more than|the most of} any other {country|nation} {in the world|around the globe|anywhere in the world}. {Source: AAR Railroads|Source: Railroads of the AAR|AAR Railroads} were the {principal|main|primary} {mode of transportation|method of transport}. They made it {easy|simple|quick} and {cheap to ship|inexpensive to transport|affordable to transport} {goods and supplies,|items and supplies,|products and other supplies, and} {even|including|especially} {for|to|in the case of} Union {and|as well as} Confederate {armies during the|forces during the|army during} Civil War.

The U.S. railroad network grew {again after|again following|once more following} the Civil War. In 1869{, the first transcontinental railway| the first transcontinental railroad} {in|within|located in} the United States was built. {The railroad allowed for|It allowed|The railroad was able to allow for} the {growth|expansion} {of towns along its tracks|in towns that were built along the tracks|of cities along its lines}. {The|It was estimated that the|In the} U.S. railroads had 254,000 miles (408 773 {kilometers|km}) of track {by|at} the {beginning|turn|start} {of the 20th|in the second half of 20th|at the turn of} century. {The steam locomotives were|Steam locomotives were gradually|Steam locomotives were} {being replaced by diesel ones|being replaced with diesel engines|replacing by diesel locomotives}.

{The decline of|A decline in|It was the decline that} U.S. railroads {began in|started in|began around} the {middle|mid} 20th century. Trains were {affected|impacted} by {a well-developed|an established|an extensive} interstate highway system{ and| as well as|, as well as the} {strict federal regulations|rigorous federal laws|rigid federal rules}. {However, the current|However, the present|But the current} energy crisis has {made trains that run|led to trains running|seen trains running} {on diesel or sometimes biodiesel|on biodiesel or diesel|using biodiesel, or diesel} fuel more {popular with|appealing to|popular among} {passengers|customers|the passengers}.

Don’t get derailed. {Stay with|Follow|Join} us as we {discuss|talk about} {train technology, how|the latest technology in train technology, how|train technology, the ways} trains {transport people and freight|transport freight and people|move people and cargo}{,| and| as well as} {the future of rail|what the future holds for rail|how rail is going to change the way we do} {transportation|transport}{, and more| and much more}.

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Electric {trains are powered by|train engines are powered with|trains run on} electricity. They {use electricity to drive|use electricity to power|utilize electricity to drive} their motors{ and provide|, and also provide| and to provide} {locomotion|the ability to move|movement}. {One of three sources provides|Three sources provide|Three sources supply} the electricity. The electricity is {delivered either|supplied|either delivered} {via an electrified third|through an electrified|through electrified third} rail {below the train|beneath the train|that is below the train,} or {via electrified cables overhead|through electrified cables that run overhead|via cables electrified above} the train.

Electric trains {have a long and rich|are a lengthy and extensive|have a long and extensive} {history|time|background}. {They have also advanced significantly|They’ve also seen significant advancements|They’ve also developed significantly} {over the years|throughout the years|in the past}. {For reliable power supply|To ensure a reliable supply of power}{,|} modern electric {energy trains often|energy trains typically|trains usually} {use both batteries and|utilize batteries as well as|make use of batteries as well as} external {power sources|sources of power}. {A battery is a better|Batteries are a better|Battery power is a superior} {option than other technologies|alternative to other options|alternative to other types of technology} {like|such as} diesel trains. {It can also be charged|They can also charge|It is also charged} {using regenerative brake, which|by regenerative brakes, which|with a regenerative brake. This} {makes it more efficient for|can make it more efficient for|is more efficient} commuter rails {or|and} similar systems {that have|with|that feature} {many stops and starts|numerous stops and starts|lots of stops and start}. {Modern diesel trains are hybrids|Diesel trains of the present are hybrids|The modern diesel train is a hybrid}{ that| and|, which} {have batteries to supplement|include batteries that complement|come with batteries that are used to complement} {their internal combustion engines|the internal combustion engine|with internal combustion engines}.

{A third rail delivers|Third rails provide|A third rail is a source of} {power, which|power, and|electricity, which} {is in some ways|is , in a way,|can be considered to be} {the easiest|the simplest|most simple} {of the two external|of the two|to connect to the other two} power sources. Each {section of powered rail|rail section|rail powered} {requires its own transformers|has its own transformer|needs its own transformers}. {However, trains|Trains} {draw direct current|are able to draw current directly|use direct power} from {them|these transformers}. {These systems are less expensive|They are cheaper|These systems are more affordable} to {construct and require minimal|build and require little|build and require only minimal} maintenance. They are not {suitable|appropriate} for streetcars{ and other situations| or other scenarios|, or any other situation} {in which pedestrians could|where pedestrians may|in which pedestrians might} {come into|be in|get into} {contact with the rail|close contact with rails|proximity to the railway}. {These situations are best served|These scenarios are best handled|This kind of situation is best handled} by {alternating current cable systems|cables that are alternating current|the alternating current cable system}. {However, they are more|They are however more|However, they can be} {costly and|expensive and|expensive and will} {require additional electrical|need additional|have additional electric} transformers{ onboard|}. They {can also|also can} {cause interference to|interfere with|create interference in} electronic communications.

Do Trains Use Electricity?

A railway electrification {system supplies|system provides|device supplies} {electric power to|electricity to|electrical power for} trams {and|as well as} railway trains{ without the need|, without the need| without the requirement} for an on-board {prime man|prime person|prime-man} {or fuel supply|and fuel source|as well as fuel supplies}. {On electric railways, electric|Electric|In electric railways, an electric} {locomotive is used to transport|locomotives are used to transport|locomotives are used to move} {passengers and freight|freight and passengers} in separate {cars|vehicles}. Electricity is {typically generated in|usually generated by|typically produced in} {large, efficient power plants|huge, efficient power plants|powerful power plants that are large and efficient}. The {electricity is then transported|power is then transferred|electricity is then delivered} {to the railway network|through the railway system|via the railways} {to be delivered to the|for distribution to|and then delivered to} trains. {Some electric railways are equipped|Certain electric railways are outfitted|Some electric railways come} with their own {producing|production} stations {and transmission lines,|and transmission lines|as well as transmission lines,} {but most|however, the majority|but the majority of them} {rely|depend} on {electricity supplied|the electricity provided} by {a|an|the} utility. The railway {usually manages|typically manages|typically runs} its own {switches and transformers|transformers and switches}{, as well as| and| along with} distribution lines.

{A conductor runs|Conductors run|Conductors are the ones that run} {along the track to power|across the track to provide power to|through the track in order to supply power to} moving trains. {It is typically|It’s typically|It’s usually} one of two {types|kinds}. {An overhead line that is|A overhead line|An overhead line} suspended from {towers or poles|poles or towers} {along|on|in} {the track, or|tracks, and a|the tracks. Or} {structure|a structure|structures} {or tunnel ceilings|and tunnel ceilings|that is a tunnel’s ceiling}. {Or a third rail|A third rail is a second rail|Third rails are} at {track level which|the track’s level that|track level , which} is {connected by|joined by|connected with} {a sliding|an incline|the sliding} “pickup foot”. The {running rails of|rails running in|rails that run through} overhead {wire and third rail systems|wiring and the third rail system|and third rails} are{ the|} return conductors. {However, some systems|Some systems also|Certain systems, however,} {have a separate|include a|come with a separate} fourth rail.

Electric trains are {far|much|a lot} {more efficient than diesel engines|superior to diesel engine|better than diesel motors} {in terms of|when it comes to} {energy consumption|the consumption of energy|power consumption}{, pollution reduction, and| as well as pollution reduction.| in terms of pollution reduction, energy consumption, and} {running costs|operating costs|running costs}.

Electric locomotives are {more reliable, quieter|more stable, quieter|quieter, more reliable}{, stronger, responsive| more powerful,| as well as more responsive, powerful} {and reliable than diesel engines|and more reliable than diesel engines|and reliable than diesel engines}.

They {do not produce any|don’t generate any|do not generate} local emissions{ which is|, which is|,} {an important benefit|an important advantage|one of the major advantages} for {tunnels and urban settings|urban tunnels and urban environments|urban and tunnel-based settings}.

{Some electric traction systems offer|Certain electric traction systems provide|Certain electric traction systems can offer} {regenerative|Regenerative|the option of regenerative} {braking|brakes}. {This converts the train’s energy|The train’s energy is converted|The energy generated by the train is converted} into electricity{ and|, and then} {returns it back|return it|returns it} to the {supply system|power system that is available} {for use|to be used} by other trains{ or to| or|, or to} the {general utility grid|grid of general utility services|utility grid in general}.

{While electricity can be produced|Although electricity can be generated|Although electricity can be made} {from many sources,|through a variety of sources,|from a variety of sources} {such as|like|including} renewable energy{, diesel electric locomotives use| Diesel electric locomotives rely on| Diesel electric locomotives make use of} {petroleum|petroleum-based} products. In the past{,|} {electrifying railway lines was|the electrification of railway tracks was|electric railways were} {influenced|driven|affected} by {concerns about resource independence|the concern about resource independence|worries about the independence of resources}. {Landlocked Switzerland’s confederation has abundant|The landlocked Switzerland confederation has plenty of|Switzerland’s landlocked confederation is rich in} hydropower{, but almost|, however it has virtually| but virtually} {no oil or coal|none of coal or oil|no coal or oil} reserves. It {electrified its network partly|also electrified its power grid|has electrified its infrastructure} to {address supply concerns|alleviate supply issues|ease supply worries} {during the two|in the course of two|throughout the 2} World Wars.

There are {many drawbacks to|many disadvantages with|a variety of disadvantages associated with} electric traction. {They include high construction costs|It is expensive to construct|These include the high cost of construction}{, which can| that can| which} {make it difficult to use|make it difficult to operate|cause difficulties to use} {on low-traffic routes and|for low-traffic routes, and a|in areas with low traffic and the} {lack of flexibility|inflexibility|limitations in flexibility} due to {third rails and overhead|overhead and third rail|overhead} wires {that are required for|required by|needed for} {electric trains|electric trains}.

{Also, they are vulnerable|They are also vulnerable|Additionally, they are at risk} {in case of power outages|to power failures|when power is cut off}. {These issues are reduced by|This is mitigated by|These problems are mitigated with} {multiple units and electro-diesel electric|multi-unit electro-diesel electric|several units and electro-diesel electrical} locomotives. They {can also operate|also can operate|also run} {on diesel power in|using diesel power during|with diesel power during} power {outages or on non-electrified|outages , or on non-electric|interruptions or on non-electric} routes.

Different {supply frequencies and voltages|voltages and frequencies of supply|supply voltages and frequencies} {may be used in different|can be utilized in different|are available in various} {regions, which can make|regions, making|areas, which could make} {service more complicated and require|the process more complex and requires|service more difficult and demand} {more electric locomotive power|greater electric locomotive power|more power from electric locomotives}. Clearances {with|using|for} overhead lines {were a problem|have been a challenge|could be a concern} {for double-stack rail transport|for double-stack rail transportation|when it came to double-stack rail travel}. {However, this|But, this|This} is no longer {an issue|a problem} {as|since|because} {both|the two railways|each of} India Railways and China Railways operate electric double-stack cargo {trains using|trains that use|train using} overhead lines.

{The electrification of railway tracks is|Train tracks are being electrified and|Railway tracks have been electrified, and it is} {on the rise|increasing}. {Electrified tracks account for around|Tracks that are electrified account for about|The electrified tracks comprised around} {one-third of all tracks in|1/3 of all tracks around|one-third of all tracks across} the world {as of|at the time of|in} {2012|2012}.

{Is Electricity a Power Source|Does Electricity provide power|Is electricity a source of power} for Trains?

{Some railways have the largest|Certain railways have the biggest|Some railways boast the biggest} {rail|railway|railroad} {networks in the world,|networks in the world|network in the world,} {with|comprising|including} 67.368 {kilometers of track,|miles of tracks,|km of track.} 22.550 {trains and|trains , and|train tracks and} 22.24 Million {passengers per|people per|passengers each} day.

Trains are powered {by either|by|either by} {electricity or diesel|diesel or electricity}. Electric traction {currently transports approximately|is currently responsible for around|is currently used to transport around} two-thirds {the freight and over|of the freight and more than|of freight, and over} {half of the passenger traffic|50% of passenger traffic|half the passengers} on railways. {However, electric traction contributes|But, electric traction is|Yet, electric traction contributes} {only 37% to|just 37% of|only 37% of} Railways{‘ overall|} energy efficiency{ cost| costs|}.

This will {reduce|decrease|lessen} the {railways’ dependence|dependence of railways|railroads’ dependence} {on imported fossil fuels|of imported fossil fuels,|on fossil fuels imported from abroad} and {lower costs|reduce costs|will reduce the cost of fuel}. The President {wants to improve|is determined to increase|would like to increase} efficiency and {make|increase efficiency and make|improve efficiency to make} Railways more profitable {by cutting|through reducing|by reducing} costs. This is {done without putting|done without placing|accomplished without putting} {undue stress on|unnecessary stress on the|excessive pressure on} passengers. {He also stated|The official also said|He further stated} that this {approach will help|method will help|strategy will} {reduce|to reduce the amount of|lessen the impact of} pollution.

The President {said that|stated that the|has stated that} railways could {become the largest|be the biggest|soon become the most} electrified {railway network|rail network|network of railways} {in the world|worldwide|around the globe} {once the project is complete|when the project is completed|after the project is finished}. {It will save foreign money|It will help save foreign currency|The project will save foreign funds}{, reduce pollution and increase| as well as reduce pollution, and improve| while reducing pollution as well as increase} the {safety and speed|speed and safety|security and speed} of {railways|the railways|trains}.

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{How does a train get|How does a train acquire|What is the process by which trains get} its power?

{Many trains are entirely|A lot of trains are|The majority of trains are completely} {powered by electricity|driven by electric power|run by electricity}. The third rail{ or|, or} electrical line {that runs|running} {parallel to the track|in parallel with the tracks|along the rails} {provides|supplies|gives} {power|the power|energy}. The {lines’ voltage|voltage of the lines} {is converted into an|is converted to an|transforms into} electrical current {by transformers,|through transformers,|via transformers} which {powers|power|then power} the {wheels’ motors|motors of the wheels|motors for the wheels}.

{Is it Gasoline or Electricity|Are you sure if it is Electricity or Gasoline|Is it Electricity or Gasoline} that {powers|drives|power} trains?

Since the {beginning of|first|start of} {rail transportation,|railway transportation|railroad transportation, which was} in the{ early|} {19th century, trains have|nineteenth century, railroads have|1900s, railways} {used|utilized|employed} {many|various|different} fuel {types|kinds}. {Although|While|Though} initially{ locomotives were powered by|, locomotives were powered by| locomotives were powered with} {coal and wood|wood and coal}{, electric and diesel| but diesel and electric| however, diesel and electric} power {have become more popular|became more popular|has become more common} {in the 20th century|during the 20th century|in the latter half of the 20th century}.

What {type|kind} of fuel {does a train use|is used by trains|do trains use}? Diesel{, electricity, or steam| electricity, steam, or| electric, electricity or steam} power {are|comprise|constitute} the three {main|primary|major} {fuels that trains use|fuels used by trains|sources of fuel used by trains}. {As it was in|Similar to|Like} {other industries|different industries|various other sectors}, steam {was also|was|power was also} {used in the beginning days|utilized in the early days|employed in the beginning} of railroads. The {development|advent|advancement} of {electric and diesel-electric|diesel-electric and electric|diesel and electric} {power technology|technology for power|technology to power trains} {made them popular|led to their popularity|brought them into the spotlight} {in the early 20th century|in the 20th century|at the beginning of the 20th century}. They {are still the main|remain the primary|are still the principal} {way to power trains today|method of powering trains today|means of powering trains in the present}.

What {kind of energy consumption|type of energy consumption|kind of energy use} {does the train have|is the train using|will the train use}?

Freight train engines almost exclusively use diesel. In the 1930s{,|} {the first diesel|the very first diesel-powered|those first diesel} freight {engines over-the-road|engines that ran over the road|locomotives over-the-road} were {introduced|launched|developed}. {By|In} 1940{, there were|, the number of diesel-powered trains had risen to| there was} {over|more than|nearly} 1,000 diesel-powered trains {in|operating in} America. {The majority were|Most of them were|They were mostly} {used for passenger transport|used for passenger transportation|utilized for passenger transport}.

Trains {run on electricity for|are powered by electricity for|run on electricity because of} {a reason|reasons|the reason}.

{An electric locomotive is a|Electric locomotives are} {locomotive powered by electricity from|locomotive that is powered by electricity via|electric locomotive powered by electricity from} overhead lines{ or|,} third rails{ or on-board energy|, or an on-board energy| or} {efficiency storage, such as|storage for efficiency, like|storage that is efficient, such as} {a battery, supercapacitor|batteries, supercapacitors|supercapacitor, battery} or battery.

The {electric generator/motor combination functions|motor and generator that is electric functions|electric generator/motor combination serves} {solely as a power|only as a power|only as a} transmission device. {Therefore, locomotives that have|Therefore, locomotives with|So, locomotives that come with} on-board fuel {prime movers such|primemovers, such|prime movers , such} as {diesel engines, gas turbines|gas turbines, diesel engines} or diesel engines{, are designated| are classified|, are classified} as electric locomotives{ and|,|, and} {not electric locomotives|not electric locomotives|are not considered electric locomotives}.

Electric locomotives {are able to|can} {take advantage of|benefit from|make use of} electric motors'{ high|| superior} efficiency. {This is often over|It is usually over|It’s usually around} 90{%| percent}. This {does not include|doesn’t include|is not including} the {inefficiency of|power inefficiency that comes from} {producing|creating|making} electricity. Regenerative {brake, which recovers|brake, which reclaims|brakes, which recuperate} {kinetic energy during|the energy of|the energy generated by} {braking and|the braking process and then|stopping and} {puts power back on|put power back on|returns power to} the line to {improve|increase} efficiency, is {possible|a possibility|feasible}. AC {motor-inverter driven systems|Motor-Inverter driven system|motor inverter-driven systems} {make it possible|allow|permit} to {use regenerative braking|utilize regenerative braking|employ regenerative brakes} {on electric locomotives|for electric motors|in electric engines}. Electric {locomotives are quieter|motors sound better|trains are more quiet}{ and emit| and produce|, and emit} {less noise than diesel locomotives|less sound than diesel engines|less noise than diesel locomotives}.

Electric locomotives {don’t have|do not have|don’t come with} reciprocating {parts so they are|parts , making them|components, which makes them} {more easy to use|easier to operate} on {the track|tracks}. {They also require less maintenance|Also, they require less care|Additionally, they need less upkeep}. Electric locomotives {have a significantly|have significantly|are able to handle a} {higher capacity than any single|larger capacity than any other|more capacity than any single} locomotive.

{This allows them to deliver|They can deliver|This allows them to provide} {greater power outputs|more power|higher power outputs} than diesel engines{ and can|, and|. They can} also provide more{ short-term| immediate|} surge power {for acceleration|to accelerate}. {For frequent-stop commuter rail service|If you are looking for a frequent stop commuter rail service|For commuter rail services that frequently stop}{, electric locomotives are ideal| electric locomotives are the best choice| electric locomotives are the ideal choice}. {The use of electric|Electric} locomotives is {a good|an excellent|a great} {option|alternative|choice} {for freight routes that have|for freight routes with|when freight routes have} {a high volume of|an abundance of|significant} traffic, or {those with|have|with} {well-developed|established|extensive} {rail networks|railway networks|rail lines}.

{Even though|Although} they {use|make use of|utilize} fossil fuels{, power plants can be| power plants are| power plants can be} {much cleaner than transportable|more environmentally friendly than transportation|significantly cleaner than transportable} {resources|sources|materials} {like locomotive engines|such as locomotives|for example, locomotive engines}. {Low-carbon and renewable energy sources|Renewable energy sources that are low-carbon and sustainable|Renewable and low-carbon energy sources} {include|comprise|are} hydroelectric power (hydroelectric power){,|| as well as} biomass{,|} {solar power|solar energy|the sun} (nuclear power){, and| and| as well as} wind turbines. Electric locomotives {are usually|are typically|typically cost} 20% {cheaper|less expensive} than diesel {locomotives|engines}. Maintenance costs {can be|are typically} {25 to 35 percent lower|25 to 35 percent less|25-35 percent lower} and operating {costs can|costs could|expenses can} be {up to 50%|as high as 50%.}.

The {main drawback to|biggest drawback of|major drawback to} electrification is the {high cost|cost|expense} of infrastructure{ such as|, such as| like} overhead lines{, third|, the third| and third} {rail,|rails,|rails} substations{ and|, and} control systems. {The|It is also the case that the|In the past, the} United States government has imposed higher {property taxes on|taxes on property for|property taxes for} {electrified privately-owned train systems|private train systems that are electrified|electrified private-owned train systems}. This {is making it|makes it more|has made it} difficult {for electrification to take|to get electrification in} place.

To {limit the amount of|reduce the amount of|limit the amount} carbon monoxide {and unburned hydrogens|as well as unburned hydrogens|and hydrogen that is not burned} {produced by these mobile|generated by these|produced by these portable} power sources{, the| to limit the amount of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrogens produced by these| To limit the amount of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by these sources, the} EPA {regulates marine engine exhaust emissions|controls marine exhaust emission|is responsible for regulating marine engines’ exhaust} {the|in the} {same way as automobile|similar way to automobile|same way as auto} {and truck emissions|or truck exhaust emissions|as well as truck emission}. {Railroads in|Railways across|Railroads operating in} the United States are reluctant to electrify {because of their private|due to their private|their} {train|railway} infrastructure.

The government {often subsidizes|frequently provides subsidies to|usually provides subsidy to} railway {networks|lines|systems}. They {are|form} {part of the|an integral part of|included in the} European and global {transportation infrastructure|infrastructure for transportation}. Based on the {amount|quantity} of rail {used|that is used|utilized}{, rolling stock operators| the operators of rolling stock| operators of rolling stock} {pay|have to pay|are required to pay} {fees|charges}. This allows for {the large|the massive|large} {investments necessary to ensure|investment needed to ensure that|investments required to ensure} electrification {is economically and technically|is financially and technically|that is technically and economically} {feasible in the long-term|viable in the long run|feasible over the long term}.



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