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{Methods of Harnessing|Methods to Harness|Techniques for Harnessing} Energy What {is|exactly is} Geothermal Energy?

{Methods of Harnessing|Methods to Harness|Techniques for Harnessing} Energy What {is|exactly is} Geothermal Energy?

Geothermal {is derived|comes|originates} {from|by|of} {the|geothermal, which is derived from the|Geothermal is the} Greek {words|word|terms} geo (meaning earth) and{ therein|} (meaning {heat|the word heat|warmth}). Convective circulation plays {an important|a crucial|a significant} {role in bringing heat|function in bringing warmth|part in bringing heat} to the surface {from the|from|of the} {Earth’s hot interior|earth’s interior that is hot|heated interior of the Earth}.

{Our Earth’s crust is a|The Earth’s crust is the|The crust of our planet is the} {result of millions of active volcanoes|consequence of millions of volcanoes that are active|product of millions active volcanoes}{, enormous|, massive| and huge} {volumes of magma,|amounts of magma,|amounts of magma} and {a lot|lots|plenty} of cooling {below|beneath} the surface. {This persistent and widespread|The enduring and widespread|The constant and extensive} {volcanism has produced many valuable|volcanism has created a wealth of|volcanic activity has resulted in the creation of many precious} natural resources {around the globe|across the globe|throughout the world}.

Geothermal {Power plants energy|Energy from power plants|Energy produced by power plants} {can be extracted from groundwater|is extracted through ground water|are extracted by groundwater} {heated|that is heated|that has been heated} by {large, hot|hot, large|massive, hot} magma bodies. {Extract|Get} {energy from|the energy of|Energy from} Brantley 1994{,|} Volcanoes {in|located in|within} the United States. USGS General Interest Publication.

{Deep circulation of groundwater around|The deep circulation of groundwater around|The deep circulation of groundwater in} fracture zones {will|can|can help} {bring heat down to shallower|allow heat to be absorbed into lower|reduce heat to lower} levels. {This heat can be gathered|The heat is gathered|The heat could be collected} {from a wide|over a large|across a vast} {area and concentrated in near|area , and then concentrated in close to|region and then concentrated near} the {surface storage tanks,|storage tanks on the surface,|tanks that store water on the surface} or {it can be discharged|discharged|released} {as|in|into} hot springs. {These reservoirs may hold|The reservoirs could contain|These reservoirs can contain} hot water or {a stream|even a stream|streams}.

{These reservoirs’ hot water|The hot water in these reservoirs|The reservoirs’ hot water} or steam {can be pumped directly|can be directly pumped|may be pumped directly} {to|onto|into} the surface. {This low-energy waste water|The waste water that is low in energy|The low-energy waste water} is {frequently reinjected|often reinjected back|usually reinjected} into {the storage tank or|the storage tank , or|storage tanks or} {used for heating purposes|utilized for heating purposes|used to heat the tank for}. This {technology can be used|technique can be utilized|technology is able} to {produce electricity as|generate electricity as|produce electricity , as} {well as heat for domestic|well as heat for home|in addition to heat for domestic} {and industrial use|and industrial uses|as well as industrial purposes}.

The reliability, {economy|economics}{, sustainability, and| sustainable,| sustainability, and} {renewable nature|the renewable energy|green nature} of geothermal {energy have|energy has|power have} been {proven|demonstrated|proved} (World Bank Group{ 2004|, 2004}).

There are {generally two main|two primary|typically two main} {types|kinds} {of resources|of minerals|that are available}: (1) high temperature resources and (2) {moderate/low temperatures|moderate/low temperature|moderate or low temperatures} resources. {High temperature geothermal resources|Geothermal resources with high temperatures|Geothermal resources that are high temperature}{, which can reach| that can attain| are those that have} {temperatures of 220 degrees|temperature of 220°|temperatures as high as 220 degrees} Celsius or {higher|more}{, are primarily| They are mostly| typically, are} {found in volcanic areas and|located in volcanic regions and|found in volcanic areas as well as} {island|islands} chains.

{All continents have moderate-low|Every continent has moderate-low|Each continent has moderate to low} temperature resources. {High temperatures are used|The high temperatures are utilized|High temperatures are} {almost exclusively for power production|mostly for power production|nearly exclusively for power generation}{, while the| and the vast| however, the} majority of {low temperature resources|the low temperature resources|the resources with low temperatures} are used {to heat direct|for direct heating} or for {agriculture and aquaculture|aquaculture and agriculture}.

{How does|What is the process behind} Harnessing Geothermal Energy{ work| function|}?

{Today, there are|There are currently|Presently, there are} three {types|kinds} of geothermal power {plants in|stations in|plants currently in} {use|operation}.

Steam {plants that directly use|power plants that use direct|plants that directly utilize} geothermal steam. {Steam power plants|The steam power plant|These power stations} that {are dry use|are dry make use of|use dry steam use} {extremely|extreme|very} {hot|high temperatures of|heated} steam (>455 degrees Fahrenheit{ or >235| or more than 235|, or >235} {degrees|degree|temperatures} Celsius) and {very little|only a small amount of|extremely little} reservoir water. The steam {flows|is pumped|moves} {directly through a pipe and|directly through a pipe , and|straight through a tube and} is {sent to a turbine|then sent to a turbine|sent to a generator} {that spins a generator to|which spins a generator in order to|that spins a generator} {produce|generate} electricity. {This is the oldest type|This is the oldest form|It is the earliest type} of geothermal {energy station|energy facility|power station}. It {was first used|first was used|was first utilized} {in 1904 in|around 1904 at|by 1904} Lardarello, Italy. Geysers {in|located in|are found in} North California are one example of dry steam production (Green Jobs 2002).

Flash Steam Plants use high pressure hot water to {make|create|produce} steam {when the|even when} {pressure is lower|tension is less|temperature is low}. {Flash steam power plants|Steam power plant flashes|The flash steam plants} {make use of|use} hot {water from the geothermal reservoir|water from the reservoir|geothermal reservoirs} {at a temperature of >360degF|with a temperature of more than 360degF|at temperatures of greater than 360degF} or {>182degC|182 degrees Celsius|more than 182 degrees Celsius}. The {deep reservoir pressure|pressure in the reservoir|reservoir’s pressure} {is released when|will be released once|can be released after} the {water|reservoir} is {pumped|delivered|transferred} {to|into} {a|the|an electric} generator.

A sudden {drop in pressure causes some|decrease in pressure causes|drop in pressure can cause some} water to evaporate {to|into|and turn into} steam. {This steam spins a turbine|The steam spins a motor|The steam spins a turbine} {that generates|which generates|which produces} electricity. {Flash steam power plants and dry steam|Dry steam and flash steam|Steam power plant flash and dry} {emit|release|produce} {very little carbon dioxide,|only a small amount of carbon dioxide,|the least amount of carbon dioxide} sulfur {oxide, and nitric|oxideand|oxides, as well as nitric} {oxygen|Ox|oxide}. {However, this is|But, this is|This is however} {50 times less than traditional|fifty times less than traditional|50 % less than conventional} {fossil fuel power plants|fossil fuel power plants|fossil fuel power stations}.

Binary Cycle Plants use water at moderate temperatures (225 to {360degFor 107 to|360deg For 107 to|360degFor 107 up to} 182degC) from the geothermal reserve. {Hot geothermal fluids|Geothermal fluids that are hot} {are heated in binary systems|can be heated|get heated} {by|through} {passing through one side|going through the other side|moving through one end} {of the heat|of the|that of the} exchanger.

{To generate electricity|In order to generate electricity|For electricity generation}{, the working fluid| the fluid used| The fluid that is used to generate electricity} is {usually|typically} an organic compound {that has|with} {a low boiling point like|low boiling points, such as|low boiling points such as} Isobutane {or|as well as|and} Isopentane. {It is then vaporized|Then, it is vaporized|Then it’s vaporized,} and {passed|then passed|then pumped} through turbines.

The Kalina Cycle {also uses an|utilizes an|is also a source of} ammonia-water {fluid as a working|fluid to work as a|liquid as a working} fluid. {According to|As per|Based on} Green Jobs 2002, the Kalina Cycle system increases geothermal plant efficiency {and lowers|as well as reducing|and reduces} {construction costs|the cost of construction}. {This, according|According} to the {makers|company’s makers|manufacturers}.

The {geothermal energy station|station for geothermal energy|geothermal power station}{, shown at right,| as shown on the right| which is shown here} is located in {Casa Diablo’s|the Casa Diablo} geothermal field. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

Geothermal Energy{:|} Applications

  1. Space/District Heating {- Schemes|- Plans|Schemes – Programs} {that use geothermal heat|which use geothermal energy|that make use of geothermal heat} to {provide|supply} more than {80% of Reykjavik’s central|80percent of Reykjavik’s central|the 80% of Reykjavik’s} heating {requirements are used|needs are in use|requirements are being used} in {many other towns in|other cities in|many other cities across} the USA, Poland, and Hungary. {A program to use|A plan to make use of|The program of using} hot water from{ failed|| a failed} {oil wells|oil fields|oil-wells located} in Poland to {replace coal-based district heating|replace district heating based on coal|substitute district heating using coal} is {being supported|supported|being backed} {by|through} the World Bank (World Bank Group 2004).
  2. Aquaculture and Agriculture {- Thermal soils, plants|Plants, thermal soils|- Plants, soils}{, and fish ponds with| and fish ponds that have| and fish ponds that exhibit} geothermal {activity can|activity may|energy can help} {boost plant and fish growth|increase the growth of fish and plants|enhance the growth of plants and fish} {in both moderate temperatures and|in moderate temperatures as well as|even in moderate temperatures and} {colder|more cold|cooler} climates. {One successful example|A good example of this|One example that has been successful} {is|can be found in|could be} {the|Oserian Farm in Kenya.|that of the} Oserian {Farm|farm|farm located} {in|situated in|which is located in} Kenya (World Flowers 2005).
  3. Power Generation{ -|} Geothermal power generation {has a capacity|can produce a power output|has a capability} {of over|of more than|exceeding} 8000 {MW and is an established|milliwatts and is a well-established|megawatts and is an established} technology. It is {especially popular|particularly popular|especially well-known} in {countries or islands|islands or countries|nations or islands} {that rely heavily|which heavily rely|which rely heavily} on {imported fossil fuels|fossil fuels imported from abroad} (World {Bank Group 2004|Bank Group , 2004|Bank Group 2004,}).

Geothermal Energy Costs

The {cost of geothermal electricity|price of geothermal power|cost of geothermal energy} {generation|production|generated} {is|can be as low as|amounts to} 4.5-7 {cents per hour|cents an hour|cents/hour}. {While this is comparable to|Although this is similar to|While this is in line with} {some fossil fuel facilities|certain fossil fuel facilities,|other fossil fuel sources,} {it must be remembered|but it is important to remember|however, it should be noted} that geothermal {electricity generation has|power generation results in|electricity generation is} {a dramatic reduction|significant reductions|an impressive reduction} in {pollution|the amount of pollution|air pollution}.

The {size of the project|project’s size|scope of the project}{, its quality,| and its quality, as well as the| along with its quality, the} {cost of financing, and|cost of financing, as well as|costs of financing and} ownership {will all affect|all impact|all influence} the {delivered costs|cost of delivery|costs of the project}.

Geothermal {plants require a lot|power plants require a significant amount|energy plants need a lot} of capital{, but have| investment, yet they have|, but they also have} {low variable costs and minimal|very low variable costs as well as minimal|relatively low variable costs and low} {fuel costs|cost of fuel|energy costs}.

The {financing structure is usually|structure of financing is typically|financing structure is generally} {so that the capital costs|to ensure that the initial costs|designed so that the capital expenses} of the project {are|will be} {paid back within|to be paid back in|due within} 15 years. {It delivers power at 5-10C/kWh|It provides power at 5-10C/kWh|The project provides power at 5-10C/kWh}.

The {costs of operating|cost of running|operating costs for} the facility {for|over} {the next 15-30|in the coming 15-30|fifteen to thirty} years {are|will be|is} {covered by operations and maintenance|paid for by maintenance and operations|covered by maintenance and operations}.

Geothermal Energy {has other|also has many|can also bring other} {benefits|advantages}

  1. {Air pollution can be reduced|The air pollution could be lessen}{: Current geothermal fields| Geothermal fields currently| The current geothermal fields} emit {about one-sixth|around one-sixth|approximately one-sixth of} the amount of {CO2 as|CO2 that is produced by|carbon dioxide as} {a gas electricity generating power|an electricity-generating gas power|power generated by a gas-powered electricity} station, and{ they|} {emit no|emit neither|produce no} {nitrogen|NOx or sulphur.|carbon dioxide} (NOx) or {sulphur|sulfur} (SOx).

The {new state-of-the art|latest state-of-the-art|state of the art} {combined cycle and geothermal binary|combination cycle as well as geothermal binary|integrated cycle} {plants|plant} {emit virtually no air pollutants|emit almost no air pollution|produce virtually no air pollutants}. {Every|Each} 1,000 MW of {geothermal power|geothermal energy|power generated by geothermal} will {offset approximately|help offset around|neutralize around} 1.9 {million pounds of|millions of pounds|million pounds} {noxious|harmful|toxic} {and harmful air pollution|pollutant air pollutants|as well as harmful pollution} {in|that is a threat to|from} Western skies.

It {will also offset nearly|also will offset around|will also offset about} {8 billion pounds of|eight billion pounds|8 trillion pounds} {climate-changing|climate changing|climate change} {Emissions of co2 per year|CO2 emissions per year|CO2 emissions} {from fired gas power plants|from gas power plants that are fired|generated by gas-fired power plants} and {much more from|a lot more from the|many more} {fired coal power plants|coal-fired power plants}.

  1. {Renewable energy source: All|Source of renewable energy: All|Energy sources that are renewable: all} {forms|types|kinds} of geothermal {heat are renewable|energy are renewable|heat are sustainable}{, provided that| in the event that| as long as} the heat exchangers {extracted|that are extracted|derived} from the earth {are not|aren’t|do not} {greater than the|more than the|higher than the amount of} heat {absorbed|that is absorbed|absorption} {by the thermal|from the|into the thermo} reservoir. {After it is completely depleted|When it’s depleted completely|Once it has been depleted}{, a geothermal reservoir| the geothermal reservoir that is| of geothermal energy, the reservoir} {used for electricity generation can|that is used to generate electricity can|utilized for power generation could} {take hundreds of years|be a long time} to replenish.

Recovering {a district heating system reservoir|the reservoir of a district heating system|the district heating system reservoir} {can take between 100 and|could take anywhere from 100 to|could take anywhere between 100 and} 200 years. {Recovery of|Recovering|The recovery of} {a geothermal heat pump reservoir|the reservoir of a geothermal heat pump|the geothermal heat pump reservoir} {may take|could take up to|can take as long as} 30 years.

  1. Reduce {reliance on imported electricity|dependence on electricity imported|the dependence on imported electricity}{: Geothermal energy is produced| Geothermal energy is generated| Geothermal energy is produced} locally, which {reduces|decreases|helps reduce} trade deficits. {Trade deficits can be|The trade deficit can be|It is possible to have trade deficits} {reduced|cut} to {keep wealth in|ensure that wealth stays in|preserve wealth within} the country and {encourage|promote|help promote} {healthier|healthy|more healthy} economies. If {imported oil was|oil imported from abroad was|imported oil were} {replaced with|substituted with|substituted by} domestic resources, {nearly|more than|almost} {half|50%} {of the annual|of each year’s|from the total} U.S. trade deficit could be {eliminated|removed|reduced} (Green {Jobs 2004|Jobs 2004,}).

Geothermal energy {is a proven|is a well-established|has been proven to be a} {wave energy source|source of energy from waves} that has been {around|in use|used} for {more than|over} 100 years. {However, it is|It is|But, it’s} only {now that we realize|recently that we are able to see|now that we understand} {it has geothermal energy potential|that it is a potential source of energy|the potential of geothermal energy} to {replace and/or augment|supplement or replace|complement and replace} {our existing renewable energy generated|the existing renewable energy|our current renewable energy} {resources|sources}.

{The|It is believed that the} United States has the majority of {geothermal resources|the geothermal resources located|geothermal energy resources} {in the west|within the western region|throughout the West}, {including|which includes} {[region] and [region]|regions and regions|[region] and}. Geothermal energy is {efficient|reliable|effective}{, clean, and inexpensive| cheap, clean, and safe| cost-effective, safe, and clean}{, but this limited use| however, its limited usage| but its limited use} {seems to be its greatest|is its biggest|appears to be its main} {weakness|flaw|drawback}. Geothermal energy {is only|only accounts for|represents only} {a fraction of the|one-third of|just a small fraction of} solar {power that is dispersed|energy that is scattered|power dispersed} {on the earth’s surface,|across the earth’s surface|over the Earth’s surface} {compared to other alternatives like|in comparison to other options like|when compared with other options such as} solar. {It has|There is} {room for improvement|potential for improvement|the potential to be improved}.

{While geothermal energy units|Although geothermal energy units|While geothermal energy sources} {are capable of being|can be} {expanded, their methods|extended, their processes|developed, their techniques} and {technologies have remained virtually|technology have remained|techniques have remained} {static|inactive|unchanged}. {We should also consider|It is important to consider|We must also think about} the {appropriateness|potential benefits|benefits} {of alternative energy sources|alternatives to fossil fuels|for alternative sources of energy} {as|when|while} we {look for them|search for them|seek them out}.

Five {ways to harness|methods to tap into|ways to tap} the{ original|| first} source of {renewable energy|energy renewable} {- human|Human} power

Wind-up phone charger

{Mobile phone users|Users of mobile phones} who {are persistent must|are dedicated should|have a habit of staying connected should} not {wander too far|be too far away|get too far} from {a power source|their power source|the power source,} or {feel the fear of|be afraid of|fear} their battery {running out|draining|going out}. {The|This|Its} “Reactor” iPhone case is {embedded with an ultra-thin|equipped with an ultra-thin|fitted with a super-thin} generator. It {allows you to|lets you} {manually charge your battery|charge your battery manually|recharge your battery on your own} {by turning the handle|using the knob|through the control}{ that’s|} {plugged into its back|connected to its back|attached to the back of its}. {Although|While} this method of {energy generation may|power generation might|energy generation might} not be {new|revolutionary|brand new}{, it sheds light on| however, it does shed light on| but it provides} the possibility that {human-power|human power|human energy} {could be used to provide|can be utilized to supply|could be utilized to provide} {emergency power and is readily|an emergency power source and is|the power needed for emergencies and is} {available when needed|available in times of need|accessible when required}.

{Gravity-powered light|Light powered by gravity}

{Designing a human-powered product|The design of a product powered by humans|Making a product that is powered by humans} {can be difficult|isn’t easy|isn’t an easy task} {because it requires less work|since it requires less effort|because it requires less effort} to {generate|produce} {power|energy}. Gravity Light solves this problem by {harnessing|using|making use of} the {power|potential} of gravity. To lift the {sandbag weight|sandbag’s weight|weight of the sandbag}{, all it takes is| all it takes is| only requires} one {burst of power|blast of energy|shot of power}. The weight {gradually drops to|slowly drops until it can|will gradually drop to} {turn a spur gear system|rotate a spur gear system|spin a spur gear mechanism}{, which powers| that powers| that power} the LED {light for twenty|for 20|light for 20} minutes.

Human harvesting

Parasitic harvesting {is the process|is the method|refers to the process} {of generating wind power from|of producing wind power through|that generates wind power through} {ordinary activities like|regular activities such as|normal activities such as} walking. The {nPowerPEG is a tube-shaped handheld|nPowerPEG is a hand-held tube-shaped|NPowerPEG is a tube-shaped hand-held} device that {can be clipped|is able to be attached|you can clip} {to your belt or backpack|to your backpack or belt|onto your backpack or belt}. It generates {electricity from movement|electricity through movement|power from motion} {using a magnet, spring|by using a spring, magnet|with a spring, magnet}{, or| or an| or} inductive coil. {Although it doesn’t generate|While it’s not|Even though it’s not} {enough power to power|sufficient power for|enough energy to run} {high-wattage|large-watt|powerful} {electronics like tablets and laptops|electronic devices like laptops and tablets|electronics such as laptops and tablets}{, the concept has| it does have| The concept is} {high|excellent|an impressive} {energy efficiency and battery technology|power efficiency as well as battery tech|performance in terms of energy and batteries}.

Flywheel kitchen {gadgets|appliances}

Modern {human-powered devices do|devices powered by humans do|technology powered by humans does} not {rely solely|solely rely|rely only} on the {generation|production|creation} of electricity. Christoph Thetard’s{ mechanical|} flywheel drive RB2B {powers|power|is a power source for} {a range of kitchen|various kitchen|the kitchen with a variety of} appliances. The flywheel {spins|rotates|can spin} at {up to 10,000 RPM using|10,000 RPM with|10,000 RPM through} {a geared transmission with|an geared transmission that has a|an engineered transmission and a} mechanical power {supply of|of|that is} 350 W. The {wave power|power of the wave|energy generated by the wave} {can be used to run|can be used to power|is able to run} {several attachments such as|various attachments like|multiple attachments, including} {a knife, slicing disk|knives, slicing disks|cutting disks, knives} and whisk. {While it isn’t clear|Although it’s not clear|While it’s unclear} {how practical this device is|what the practicality of this gadget is|what practicality this device has}{, the designer deserves credit| however, the creator deserves praise| but the inventor deserves credit} for {creating a concept|introducing a concept|coming up with a design} {that challenges conventional notions|that challenges the notion|which challenges the conventional belief} that {gadgets|devices|all devices that are} powered by humans {must|have to|need to} be {portable|mobile|lightweight} and {battery-powered|powered by batteries}.



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